Cancer is a type of disease that can be characterized by the development of abnormal cells that grow rapidly, uncontrollably, and have the ability to destroy the normal tissue systems inside the body.
Cancer develops when the body’s normal mechanism stops working properly. Mostly, the older cell inside the body does not die, instead, it gets multiplied rapidly inside the organs and tissue and form abnormal cells. The abnormal cells can form the tissue which is called Tumour. some cancer like leukaemia does not form a tumour.
Generally, most of the cancerous tumors form the lumps inside the body. However, not all lump formation is cancer, the lumps that are not cancer are called Malignant. Doctors mostly take out a piece of the lump and check whether it is cancer or not. Some cancer grows fast and others slow. Similarly, the treatment of cancer can respond differently to the types of treatment. some cancer treatments are best as surgery and some respond quickly to the drug called Chemotherapy.
cancer can spread to different parts of the body as well through the bloodstreams. For example, cancer cells inside the pancreas can travel to the bones and can grow there. But it is still called pancreatic cancer not as bone cancer. unless cancer starts at the bone. one of the first places cancer often spread is to the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are the tiny bean-shaped organs that help to fight the infections inside the body. The lymph nodes system is mostly present in a cluster in different parts of the body such as the neck, under the arms.
Types of cancer
cancer are named for the areas where it begins and the types of cell which they are made of, even if they spread to different parts of the organs of the body. there are several general terms used in medical for the general type of cancer that are following below:
- Carcinoma – Carcinoma is the most common type of cancer. It begins in the epithelial tissue of the skin or in the tissue or in the tissue of the linings of internal organs such as the liver, kidney. This type of cancer may spread to different parts of the body. The spread of the cancer cell to a different part can be two types of that are invasive carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.
- Sarcoma – Sarcoma is a type of cancer that starts at the tissue of bones and soft tissues. The soft tissue includes fat, blood vessels, muscles, tendons, and lining of the joints. Since there are 70 kinds of sarcomas, treatment varies according to location, type, and other factors.
- Leukemia – Leukemia is a type of blood cancer caused by the rise of the number of white blood cells in the human body. The cancer white blood cells crowd out the red blood cell and platelets needed for the health of the body. Thus, the extra white blood cell does not work properly. It can occur genetically, family history. The white blood cell mostly helps in the immune system that fights against a different kind of infection to the body.
- Lymphoma – Lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in fighting cells of the immune system called Lymphocytes. These cells are in lymph nodes, spleen, thymus bone marrow, and other parts of the body. In this, lymphocyte cells grow rapidly and uncontrollably. this spread rapidly to other parts of the body.
Common Symptoms of cancer*
- lump or thickening of the area under the skin
- weight change
- skin changes: such as darkening of skin, yellowing or redness of the skin
- changes in bowel and bladder habits
- persistent cough or trouble breathing
- difficulty swallowing
- night sweat
- joint pain
- unexplained bleeding
* Can be for other disease also.
Skin cancer is the abnormal growth of the skin cell most often occurs when the skin is exposed to the sun. But this ordinary cancer of skin can also occur when the skin does not exposed to the sun.
Skin occurs when mutation occurs in the DNA of skin cell. The mutation helps cell to grow out of control form a mass of cancer cell. Much of the damage to DNA of skin cells is due to ultraviolet ray present in the sunlight and the light used to tanning the bed.
Basal cell carcinoma: occurs around neck or face
- waxy bump
- brown scar like lesion
- A bleeding or scabbing sore
Squamous cell carcinoma: occurs mostly in hand, face, and ear skin
- A firm, red nodule
- crusted surface
Melanoma sign of symptom
- A large brownish spot
- A mole that changes colour, size or bleeds
- A painful lesion that itches or burns
- Avoid the sun during the mid day.
- Use sun screen year round.
- wear protective clothing.
- Avoid tanning bed.
After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in the human world. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women but it is common in females than males. cancer of breast most often begins within the cell of the milk-producing duct. researchers found out that 5 to 10 percent of breast cancer is linked to the gene mutation passed through the generation of a family.
- Breast lump or thickening in the breast surrounding
- The change in size, shape, and appearance
- changes to the skin over the breast
- newly inverted nipple.
- peeling, scaling, crusting, or flaking of pigment area of the breast skin.
- redness or pitting of the breast skin.
- check your weight regularly. Maintain a healthy lifestyle and do not get over-weight which increases the risk of cancer, mostly after menopause.
- Regular exercise that is a woman should exercise regularly at least for 30 minutes.
- Eat fruits and vegetables and avoid alcohol.
- Do not smoke.
- Breastfeeding for at least one year or more.
- Avoid birth control peels, mostly after the age of 35.
- avoid highly chemicalized cosmetics or try to use fewer amount of cosmetics.
Smoking causes the most of the lung cancer, both in smoker and people who inhale the secondhand smoke. Smoking cause the lung cancer by damaging the lining cells of the lungs. When you inhale the smoke of the cigrette, which have full cancer causing substance called carcinogens, changes the lung tissue immediately.
At starting the cell may be recovered but with longer period of time due repeated exposure, the linings are damaged. over the time damage caused to the cell to act abnormally and leads to lung cancer.
- a new cough that does not go away
- coughing up blood
- shortness of breath
- chest pain
- losing weight without trying
- Bone pain
- Don’t smoke or stop smoking
- Avoid secondhand smoke
- Test for redon of your home
- Eat a diet full of fruits and vegetables
- Exercise most day of the week
Best Hospital around the world for cancer treatment
- hospital of the University of PA- Abramson cancer center (Philadelphia, PA, USA)
- Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, United States)
- Johns Hopkins Hospital Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center (Baltimore, MD, United States)
- University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, United States)
- Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY, United States)
- Wake Forest University Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Center (Winston-Salem, NC, United States)
- Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network (Toronto, ON, Canada)
- USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (Los Angeles, CA, United States)
- Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (Withington, Manchester, United Kingdom)
- Spanish National Cancer Research Center (Madrid, Spain)
Best Cancer Hospital in India
- Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai)
- All India Institute of Medical Science (New Delhi)
- The Cancer Institute, (Adyar, Chennai)
- Apollo Specialty Hospital, (Chennai)
- The Gujrat Cancer & Research Institute, (Ahmedabad)
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